The Arrival of AFNEI and Its Resistance in Indonesian Regions – AFNEI or Allied Forces Netherlands East Indies is a special task force as a usurper of Japanese soldiers, freeing prisoners of war and taking over Indonesia to be under Dutch control again after World War II. AFNEI is led by Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison. The arrival of AFNEI was indeed to take over Indonesia from the hands of Japan. Even so, their arrival created the AFNEI Resistance in Indonesia. In various places there were battles between AFNEI and local residents.
The arrival of AFNEI to several places in Indonesia had a specific purpose to seize all weapons from the Japanese army. In addition, prisoners in Japanese hands will be released. Even so they remained under Dutch rule. Now on this occasion I will discuss the discourse of the arrival of AFNEI in Indonesian areas and the AFNEI resistance in Indonesian areas. For more details you can see below.
The Arrival of AFNEI and its Resistance in the Regions of Indonesia
Before discussing the discourse of AFNEI’s arrival in Indonesia and the AFNEI’s resistance in Indonesia, I will first explain the discourse of AFNEI’s main work. The following are some of the main activities of AFNEI in Indonesia:
- Seizing and regaining control of Indonesia from the hands of Japan.
- To repatriate Japanese soldiers who are still in Indonesia, hopefully to their country of origin.
- Catch all the criminals in the war.
- Free all Dutch prisoners previously held by the Japanese army.
- Taking over the big cities in Indonesia.
The arrival of AFNEI caused AFNEI resistance in Indonesian areas. The Dutch managed to control the eastern block of Japanese rule. This of course meant that Indonesia had to be handed back to the Dutch. During this period of power transfer and the vacant transfer of power, the Indonesian side took full advantage of it. At that time Indonesia was trying to liberate itself by proclaiming the state of Indonesia on August 17, 1945. The AFNEI arrived in Indonesia to regain control of the country. On September 15, 1945, the first time AFNEI arrived in Tanjung Priok under the leadership of WR Petterson. The arrival of AFNEI was using the Chamberlain ship. At that time, AFNEI was well received by the people of Indonesia. However, because AFNEI was involved with Van Der Plass and Van Mook from the NICA (Dutch troops), they turned against NICA and AFNEI.
AFNEI Resistance in Various Regions of Indonesia
Below are AFNEI matches in Indonesian areas such as in Surabaya, Medan and Bandung.
Battle of Surabaya (10 November 1945)
The arrival of AFNEI in the first place in Indonesia is in the city of Surabaya. At that time the British arrived and occupied the government building in Surabaya under the leadership of AWS Mallaby. The arrival of the British to Indonesia occurred on October 25, 1945. The Battle of Surabaya was a form of AFNEI resistance in Indonesian areas.
On August 31, 1945 there was an edict containing a notification that on September 1, the Indonesian flag could be flown throughout the territory of Indonesia. The raising of the red and white flag took place in various places in Indonesia. However, in Surabaya there was a disaster known as the Yamato Hotel Incident which took place on Jl. Tunjungan no. 65 Surabaya. This incident began with the raising of the Dutch flag on September 18, 1945 at 21.00 under the leadership of Mr. WV Ch Ploegma. The raising of this flag without the approval of the Republic of Indonesia. This, of course, also underlies the AFNEI resistance in Indonesia. In addition, the Indonesian boys gathered the masses and negotiated with the Dutch so that the flag would be lowered. However, the result was that Ploegman (a Dutchman) was strangled to death. Then Hariyono and Sudirman ran out of the Yamato Hotel. Surabaya youths like Kusno Wibowo, Sudirman and Haryono managed to lower the Dutch flag and tore it up.
In the end, the Dutch NICA organization cooperated with AFNEI to carry out the resistance. The AFNEI resistance in Indonesia created a war between Indonesia and the Netherlands. However, on October 29, 1945, the truce between the two sides subsided. But the war in Surabaya happened again because Mallaby met a Surabaya boy while crossing the Red Bridge. In the end Mallaby was shot and killed and his car caught fire due to a grenade. Mallaby’s death caused the British to be angry and the British carried out an Ultimatum to Surabaya under the leadership of EC Mansergh.
The war between Britain and Indonesia took place on November 10. Britain with Dutch donations (NICA) tried to destroy Indonesia. The AFNEI match in Indonesia also started. Indonesia was bombarded by the British with planes, tanks and 30,000 infantry soldiers as well as British maritime ships. The war lasted for more than 3 days. Even the santri, Islamic boarding school kyai and religious leaders (KH. Wahab Hasbullah and KH Hasyim Asy’ari) joined the war. Bung Tomo also helped inflame the spirit of Indonesian youth men through his speech, namely:
The battle between the British and Surabaya was balanced until finally Surabaya was subject to the British for three weeks of war. The battle of 10 November killed 6,000 Surabaya fighters, 200,000 civilians fled from Surabaya and 600 British fighters were killed. Now every 10 November is remembered as Indonesian Heroes Day.
Battle in Medan Area
The arrival of AFNEI in the next Indonesian area is in the city of Medan. At first the people of Medan welcomed the arrival of AFNEI because it had the aim of freeing all prisoners of war. However, because AFNEI cooperated with the Dutch NICA under the leadership of TED Kelly, Indonesia became hostile to AFNEI. The conflict between NICA and Indonesia occurred again on October 13, 1945 when NICA troops took the badge and stepped on it. Finally, the Medan guy got angry and attacked the hotel inhabited by NICA. The AFNEI match in Indonesia, such as in Medan, then took place.
The Dutch issued an ultimatum on October 18, 1945 to the Medan side which contained a prohibition on the Medan people to carry weapons and the surrender of all Medan weapons into the hands of the Allies. The AFNEI resistance in the Indonesian area began when the Dutch and the British put up a board with the contents Fixed Boundaries Medan Area on December 1, 1945. The sign is in every corner of the city of Medan as a marker that the area is free from elements of the Republic of Indonesia and belongs to the Medan Area. On December 10, 1945, Medan was successfully attacked by the allies, and even the people of Indonesia were expelled to Pematang Siantar. However, the efforts of the Medan people continued despite the donations from the Laskar Rakyat Medan Area troops.
Bandung War Sea of Fire
The arrival of AFNEI in the next Indonesian area is in the city of Bandung. The Dutch and British arrived in Bandung in mid-October 1945. The AFNEI resistance in Indonesia is working with NICA to terrorize the people of Bandung. In the end the bandung boys and TKR people work together to fight the allies. The peak of the Bandung people’s war with the allies occurred on November 25, 1945. This battle made the Bandung area into two parts and the Cikapundung River dam breach. The area south of Bandung was occupied by the natives. While the northern region was occupied by the NICA with the British. However, the northern region must be vacated and the earth scorched on the basis of diplomatic policy. The eastern boundary to the western boundary of Andir Bandung was eventually burned. The sea of fire that occurred in Bandung occurred on March 23 and 24 and required the Indonesian people to leave Bandung. This event was later immortalized as the song Bandung Lautan Api.