Open Door Political Policy in the Dutch East Indies Government – During the Dutch colonial period, several policies were created. The policy is a system of forced cultivation. But apart from that, there are other policies that make the Indonesian state even more miserable. The Dutch East Indies government has issued an Open Door Policy. What is open door politics? What is the content of the policy? Then who are the figures who play a role in the open door political policy?
On this occasion I will explain about the open door political policy in the Dutch East Indies government. In the discussion there are the Agrarian Laws of 1870, the Sugar Law or Suiker Wet in 1870, as well as the final influence of open political policies. For more details you can see below.
Open Door Political Policy in the Dutch East Indies Government
The definition of open-door politics is the implementation of liberal colonial politics in Indonesia. In this open-door policy, the Dutch government is of the opinion that the government only acts as a supervisor in the economic field, while the private sector plays a role in economic activity in Indonesia. As a result, there is a political batig slog that serves to earn big profits. However, in the 1860s this policy was opposed by the humanitarianists and liberals.
The open door political policy in the Dutch East Indies government issued two laws, namely the Agrarian Law in 1870 and the Sugar Law or Suiker Wet in 1870. Both laws have their respective goals and contents.
Agrarian Law 1870
The first time the Dutch East Indies government issued an open-door political policy in the form of the Agrarian Law in 1870. The issuance of this Law was a testament to the improvement in the standard of living of the liberal people during the Dutch colonial era. Below are some of the contents of the Agrarian Law, namely:
- Indigenous people are given the freedom to own land rights and can be leased to private entrepreneurs.
- Entrepreneurs can lease land for 75 years from the governor.
The Agrarian Law in this open door political policy was formed for a specific purpose. The purpose of the Agrarian Law is to provide guarantees and opportunities for foreign (European) private parties to be able to open plantation businesses in Indonesia. In addition, there is also another goal, namely to protect the land rights of the residents so that they are not sold or lost.
The open door political policy in the Dutch East Indies government in accordance with the Agrarian Law showed a positive influence on the people. The Agrarian Law shows the impetus for the implementation of politics in Java to open a private company. Even the colonial government also showed freedom for entrepreneurs in leasing land. In addition, entrepreneurs will also be guaranteed their security and freedom. Residents’ land can only be rented out and not allowed to be sold to foreigners. This aims to protect the land owned by residents and provide land to produce plants that will later be exported to Europe.
Sugar Act (Suiker Wet)
The open-door political policy in the Dutch East Indies government also issued the Sugar Law or Suiker Wet in 1870. This law aimed to provide opportunities for sugar plantation entrepreneurs to develop more. Below are some of the contents of the Sugar Law which include:
- The gradual abolition of government-owned sugar companies.
- The private sector would take over all the government-owned sugar companies in 1891.
The Agrarian Law of 1870 and the Sugar Law of 1870 contained in this open-door political policy showed a good influence on Indonesia. This can be seen from the increasing number of foreign investors, both in the mining and plantation sectors. Below are the names of strange plantations in Indonesia:
- Sugarcane plantations located in Central Java and East Java.
- Tea plantations located in West Java and North Sumatra.
Tobacco plantation located in Deli, North Sumatra.
Rubber plantation located in East Sumatra.
Oil palm plantation located in North Sumatra.
Quinine plantation located in West Java.
The Political Impact of Open Doors
Next I will explain about the influence of open door politics in the Dutch East Indies government, both for the Netherlands and Indonesia. Basically, the objective of the open door policy is to improve the welfare of the people. However, the reality is that it makes people suffer even more. The people are increasingly miserable and suffering even though the exploitation of agricultural resources and human resources is getting more intense. Below are some of the political influences of open doors for the Netherlands and Indonesia.
For the Dutch:
- The colonial government and the Dutch private sector made substantial profits.
- More and more mining and plantation products flowed into the Netherlands.
- The Netherlands was used as a trading center because of land products from its colonies.
For the Indonesian Party:
- In 1885 there was a plantation crisis which made the condition of the population even worse due to falling sugar and coffee prices.
- Java’s population growth is increasing rapidly, but consumption of foodstuffs such as rice is decreasing.
- The people’s handicraft business is decreasing because it is unable to compete with European imports.
- The income of wagon transportation is decreasing due to the emergence of rail transportation.
- The people suffer more and more because of the implementation of severe executions for violations of the Penale Sanctie regulations and the use of forced labor.
Such is the clarification regarding the open door political policy in the Dutch East Indies government. This policy issued the Agrarian Law of 1870 and the Sugar Law of 1870. Although the main goal of open-door politics was to prosper the people, in reality it created misery for the people of Indonesia. Hopefully this article is useful. Thank you.