Arduino is an open-source single-board micro controller, derived from the Wiring platform, designed to facilitate the use of electronics in various fields. The hardware has an Atmel AVR processor and the software has its own programming language. Currently Arduino is very popular all over the world. Many beginners learn about robotics and electronics through Arduino because it is easy to learn. But not only beginners, hobbyists or professionals also enjoy developing electronic applications using Arduino.
- Inexpensive – Arduino boards (hardware) are usually sold relatively cheaply (between 125 thousand to 400 thousand rupiah) compared to other pro microcontroller platforms. If you want even cheaper, of course you can make your own and it’s very possible because all the resources to make your own Arduino are available completely on the Arduino website and even on other Arduino community websites. Not only suitable for Windows, but also suitable for working on Linux.
- Simple and easy programming – Please note that the programming environment on Arduino is easy to use for beginners, and flexible enough for those who are advanced. For teachers/lecturers, Arduino is based on the Processing programming environment, so if students are accustomed to using Processing, of course it will be easy to use Arduino.
- The software is Open Source – Arduino IDE software is published as Open Source, available to experienced programmers for further development. The language can be further developed through C++ libraries based on the C Language for AVR.
- The hardware is Open Source – Arduino hardware based on ATMEGA8, ATMEGA168, ATMEGA328 and ATMEGA1280 microcontrollers (the latest is ATMEGA2560). That way anyone can build (and then sell) this Arduino hardware, moreover the bootloader is available directly from the Arduino IDE software. You can also use breadboard to make Arduino devices along with other required peripherals.
There is no need for a chip programmer device because it already has a bootloadder that will handle program uploads from the computer. It already has a USB communication facility, so laptop users who don’t have a serial/RS323 port can use it. Has a ready-made module (Shield) that can be plugged into the Arduino board. For example shield GPS, Ethernet, etc.
A USB socket is a USB cable connector that plugs into a computer or laptop. Which serves to send programs to arduino and also as a serial communication port.
Digital Input/Output and Analog Input
Digital input / output or digital pins are pins for connecting Arduino to digital components or circuits. For example, if you want to make the LED blink, it can be attached to one of the digital input or output pins and ground. other components that produce digital outputs or receive digital inputs can be connected to these pins.
Analog inputs or analog pins are pins that function to receive signals from analog components or circuits. for example, potentiometers, temperature sensors, light sensors, etc.
power supply pins are pins that provide voltage for components or circuits connected to Arduino. On this power supply pin Vin and Reset. Vin is used to provide direct voltage to the Arduino without going through the voltage on the USB or adapter, while Reset is the pin to provide a reset signal via a button or external circuit.
Battery / Adapter
The battery socket or adapter is used to supply the Arduino with a voltage from the 9V battery/adapter when the Arduino is not connected to the computer. If the arduino is being connected to a computer with USB, Arduino gets a voltage supply from the USB, otherwise it is not necessary to install a battery/adapter when programming the arduino.
That was the understanding of Arduino’s functions and uses, hopefully it will be useful.