Understanding CPU and its Functions

The CPU (Central Processing Unit), also known as the Processor, is the brain of every computer system. Many of us do not understand how important the existence of a CPU is to the overall performance of a computer. What is the basic function? Why is it important to have a good cooling system to keep the processor at its ideal temperature? Why can’t it be too hot?

Understanding CPU and its Functions

How CPU Works

When data and/or instructions are entered into processing-devices, they are first placed in RAM (via Input-storage); if in the form of instructions it is accommodated by the Control Unit in the Program-storage, but if it is in the form of data it is accommodated in the Working-storage). If the register is ready to accept execution, the Control Unit will take instructions from the Program-storage to be stored in the Instruction Register, while the memory address containing the instructions is stored in the Program Counter. Meanwhile, the data is taken by the Control Unit from the Working-storage to be accommodated in the General-purpose register (in this case the Operand-register).

If based on the execution instructions performed are arithmetic and logic, then the ALU will take over the operations to perform based on the specified instructions. The results are stored in the Accumulator. If the processing results have been completed, the Control Unit will take the processing results in the Accumulator to be accommodated back into the Working-storage. If the overall work has been completed, the Control Unit will pick up the processing results from the Working-storage to be accommodated into the Output-storage. Then next from the Output-storage, the processing results will be displayed to the output-devices.

CPU Functions

CPU works like a calculator, only CPU is much more powerful processing power. The main function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations on data retrieved from memory or from information entered through several hardware devices, such as a keyboard, scanner, control lever, or mouse.

The CPU is controlled using a set of computer software instructions. The software can be run by the CPU by reading it from storage media, such as hard disks, floppy disks, compact disks, or recording tapes. These instructions are then stored first in physical memory (RAM), where each instruction will be assigned a unique address called a memory address. Furthermore, the CPU can access the data in RAM by specifying the address of the desired data.

Brain from Computer

As mentioned earlier, the existence of the CPU is similar to the brain in humans. In it every operation you perform on the computer is processed in. Your computer’s performance is determined by simple mathematical operations. The CPU is the device that controls all these operations.

Say you use a calculator to add up two numbers, the numbers are inputted by you using the keyboard. The keyboard controller converts all the information you enter into binary code. Binary code consists of a series of numbers 0 and 1.

All this information is sent to the registry and then transferred to the CPU. In it integrated ALU (Arithmetical Logical Unit). This unit is responsible for all logical and mathematical operations.

So, the calculation operation you requested is received by the CPU, and then passed to the ALU. The ALU responds in the form of binary code and returns it to the CPU. The CPU then transfers the answers to the output device.
The example above is indeed very simple, but that’s an illustration of how a processor functions.

Every operation you do through the computer, will be connected to the CPU directly or indirectly. So it is very important to make your processor always in the best condition by keeping the temperature so that it doesn’t overheat.

How Fast is my CPU?

The number of operations a CPU can perform depends on its speed. Its speed is measured in Hertz. One Hertz means your computer can perform one operation per second. The general speed that we often encounter is usually in units of giga hertz. 1 GHz means one million simple operations can be performed in one second. The faster it is, the more instructions that can be processed in one second.

But don’t just look at the frequency numbers, CPU speed is also influenced by other factors, such as architecture, cache size, and other things that you should evaluate before buying a CPU.

Multi-Core Processor

A multi-core processor is actually a CPU that has two or more cores. The basic idea of ​​a multi-core processor is that the CPU can execute several instructions at the same time. This feature increases the computer’s performance speed significantly.

Processor technology development

CPU technology continues to evolve over time. In today’s modern era, two of the world’s leading vendors, INTEL and AMD continue to innovate to improve CPU performance. It is not only the speed that continues to increase, but also the architectural technology and the development of the features contained in it. As we can see in the market, there are already many computers that use multi-core processors, Integrated GPUs, and other features.

Thus the understanding of the CPU and its functions that I can inform you, hopefully it will be useful for all of you.