Understanding Microphones and How They Work

A microphone is a type of transducer that converts acoustic energies (sound waves) into electrical signals. Microphone is one tool to help human communication. A microphone is an electronic device or component that can convert or convert acoustic energy (sound waves) into electrical energy (audio signals).

Microphone is a family of transducers that function as components or tools to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Each type of microphone has a different way of converting its energy form, but they all have one thing in common, namely that all types of microphones have a main part called the diaphragm.

Microphone

Microphone Symbol in Electronic Circuit

Microphone Symbol in Electronic Circuit

How the Microphone Works

How the Microphone Works

Microphone is an important component in electronic devices such as hearing aids, voice recorders, radio broadcasting and other communication tools such as mobile phones, telephones, intercoms, walkie talkies and home entertainment such as karaoke.

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Basically the electrical signal generated by the microphone is very low, therefore a signal amplifier is needed which is usually called an amplifier. To get to know more about this microphone that we use almost every day. The following is a brief explanation of how the microphone works:

  1. When we speak, our voice will form sound waves and go to the Microphone.
  2. In the microphone, the sound waves will hit the diaphragm (diaphragm) which consists of a very thin plastic membrane. The diaphragm will vibrate according to the sound waves it receives.
  3. A coil or wire coil (Voice Coil) located at the back of the diaphragm will also vibrate in accordance with the vibration of the diaphragm.
  4. A small permanent magnet (fixed) surrounded by the coil or coil will create a magnetic field as the coil moves.
  5. The movement of the Voice Coil in this Magnetic Field will generate an electrical signal.
  6. The resulting electrical signal then flows to an amplifier or voice recording device.

Types of Microphones

Based on the Technology or Conversion Technique from Acoustic Energy (Sound) to Electrical Energy, Microphones can be divided into several types including the following:

  1. Dynamic Microphones, namely Microphones that work based on the principle of Electromagnetic Induction.
  2. Condenser Microphone, which is a microphone whose diaphragm is made of metal and is hung on a static metal plate with a very close distance so that the two are isolated like a capacitor. Condenser Microphone is also called Capacitor Microphone.
  3. Electret Microphone, which is a Condenser type microphone that has its own electric charge so that it does not require an external power supply.
  4. Ribbon Microphone, which is a microphone that uses a thin and sensitive band that is hung on a magnetic field.
  5. Crystal Microphones or Piezoelectric Microphones, namely Microphones made of Active Crystals that can generate their own voltage when catching vibrations so they do not require an external power supply.

That’s a little explanation about the definition of a microphone and how it works, hopefully it will be useful for all of you.

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