Understanding Motherboard Components and Their Functions

Motherboards or System Board is a piece of hardware in a computer system in the form of a PCB (Printed Circuit Board).

Its function is to connect all the components that make up a computer. The motherboard can be said to be the backbone of a computer system, all computer components must be connected to the motherboard, either directly or indirectly.

Motherboards are manufactured in a variety of sizes, some made specific to a particular system brand. However, most modern motherboards are built to be ready to fit into a variety of case sizes. The motherboard is installed in the case facing towards the side of the case which is easy to open, and is tightened using screws.

Parts of Motherboard

Parts of Motherboard:


The first and most important part of a motherboard is the chipset, which serves as an interface between the processor and various external components and buses. This type of chipset can determine and assess the features and capabilities of a motherboard.

There are two groups of chipsets that we commonly encounter on the market. Intel chipset group, which can only be used for Intel CPUs, and AMD chipsets for AMD processors. These two groups are further divided into various types of chipset generations that continue to develop.

Sockets/ CPU Slots

The socket is the place where the processor resides on the motherboard. Just like the chipset, this socket is also divided into various types, depending on the type of processor it supports.

BIOS (Basic Input Output System) Chip

BIOS is a chip that stores software to control hardware and serves as an interface between hardware and the operating system (OS). BIOS is used by the computer to prepare the boot process (startup) and check the readiness of the system and hardware before starting the computer.

CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semicondutor) Battery

CMOS is a battery that supplies power to a small memory on the motherboard that serves to store computer configuration settings, time, etc. CMOS keeps us from having to configure these things every time we turn on the computer

Memory Slots

This rather long and slender slot serves as a place to install Random Access Memory (RAM). In the era of modern computers, almost all mobos have at least two RAM slots, even on high-end computer specifications there are motherboards equipped with up to 6 RAM slots.

VGA Slots (Graphic Card Slots)

This slot serves to install components of the graphics card (video card). On modern computers, generally a slot with a PCI-Express interface. On high-end motherboards can accommodate up to 3 graphics card slots.

Expansion Slots

Expansion slot serves to install additional devices such as Sound Card, LAN Card, etc.

Storage Drive Connector

Its function is to connect data storage devices such as hard disk drives, optical drives, SSDs, and external storage devices. Usually in the form of an S-ATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) / ATA interface.

Other ports

In addition to the slots above, there are several ports on the motherboard whose functions are very essential, such as:

  • 24 Pin/20 Pin power port – for connecting the motherboard to the power supply unit (PSU).
  • Power port 4pin/6pin – to supply power to the processor.
  • Port for the power/reset button on the front of the case.
  • Ports for Front USB and Front Audio connectors.

In addition to a number of slots and ports above, there is also a part of the motherboard that faces the outside of the casing and can be accessed from the outside. This section is called the Back Panel I/O, usually located on the side of a mobo, and facing the back of your case.

This back panel has several connectors that are commonly found including:

Motherboard Back Panel
  1. PS/2 mouse – Port for connecting Mouse
  2. Parallel port – This port is used to connect the CPU with external printers and modems and other peripherals that have cables for parallel ports. Parallel ports work by sending and receiving multiple bits at a time over a set of cables. Included in the parallel port are the printer, modem, and disk drive connecting ports.
  3. IEEE 1394 connector – Connection to IEEE 1394 devices
  4. RJ-45 connector -Connect LAN network cable
  5. Line in jack – connecting to a tape player or audio source
  6. Line out jack – as a sound output port.
  7. Microphone jack – connect to microphone.
  8. USB 2.0 connectors – The port connects peripherals with a USB interface.
  9. USB 2.0 connectors – The port connects peripherals with a USB interface.
  10. VGA connector – connect monitor with CPU
  11. serial connector – This port has nine pins which are used to connect an external mouse, joystick and modem. Serial ports work by sending data 1 bit at a time over a single cable. This port has the ability to transfer data at a lower speed with parallel type. The serial ports are; COM1, COM2, COM3, and COM4. the connector cable for COM1/COM3 is 9 pins and for COM2/COM4 is 25 pins.
  12. PS/2 Keyboard – Port for connecting Keyboard.

Tips for Choosing a Motherboard

Whatever your needs for using a computer, when choosing a motherboard, the most important thing to consider is compatibility. Make sure your Motherboard is compatible with other computer hardware at your planned specifications.

In addition, also look at how the support and warranty provided from the motherboard vendor of your choice. Several vendors that have been well recognized for their support for motherboards include ASUS, Gigabyte, and MSI. But usually it all depends on individual preferences.

Thus has been explained about the Understanding of Motherboard Components and Their Functions. May be useful.